Why it is necessary to rebuild the country’s budget to adapt to new realities

Finance Minister Anton Siluanov presented the main parameters of the federal budget for 2022-2024. Through a video link in parliamentary hearings in the Federation Council – the minister went into quarantine. Alexei Kudrin, President of the Chamber of Accounts, commented on the document presented and announced the immediate fulfillment of his old dream. A few years ago, he proposed raising the $ 45 per barrel limit for sterilized excess oil reserves in reserves. It will soon reach that level in 2015 thanks to the annual indexation of the price of the cut, Kudrin said.

The draft federal budget remains fairly traditional – Federation Council President Valentina Matvienko also called it her “inertia”. Kudrin also noted that the country’s financial plan, although being prepared for the post-pandemic period, reflects a return to public finances.

According to the draft budget submitted to the State Duma, next year’s revenue is projected at the level of 25 trillion rubles, of which 9.5 trillion, or 38%, is oil and gas, the amount of which will be 23.7 trillion rubles. The budget is therefore made with a surplus of 1.3 trillion.

The largest volume of spending in the federal budget for 2022 is projected in the “social policy” section – 5.8 trillion rubles. (24.6% of total expenditure), “national defense” – 3.5 trillion rubles. (14.8%) and “national economy” – 3.4 trillion (14.6%). In terms of structure, the cost of these sections has changed little compared to the pre-pandemic period. In the draft budget for 2020-2022. similar expenditures were projected to cover 5 trillion (25.6%), 3.1 trillion (15.2%) and 2.5 trillion (13.3%) of total expenditure, which was estimated at 19.5 trillion rubles.

In fact, the only basic innovation in the budget is the government’s strategic initiatives, says Vladimir Salnikov, head of the real sector of TsMAKP. Their implementation should be the first step towards a new economic order. It is provided for budget initiatives for the period 2021–2024. About 1 trillion rubles. They are divided into six areas: “Social Area”, “Construction”, “Ecology”, “Digital Transformation”, “Technological Advancement”, “State for Citizens”.

The main discussion was about the redistribution of the burden between the federal and regional budgets. Matvienko noted that the proposals of the parliament and the regional chapters are to move from special taxes on tobacco to the level of subjects and to establish spending on social assistance for the non-working population. , were not heard. But Siluanov traditionally rejected these initiatives. According to him, the Ministry of Finance had a difficult debate on budget relations, but “for the next three years we do not anticipate a fundamental change in the limitation of powers or changes in transfers between sources of revenue. Levels of the budget system.”

The head of the Ministry of Finance believes that the regions have sufficient resources to carry out their new tasks, and that the current concept of a high degree of centralization allows for a more efficient solution to national problems. According to him, this year the additional income of the constituent entities of Russia will be about 1.3 trillion rubles. In addition, the regions have a stable national debt (2.6 trillion rubles, or about 26% of GDP), which is “within normal limits”.

Matvienko argued that although the “average hospital temperature” is good, but that each issue has its own economic structure and budgetary sources. According to him, it is necessary to consolidate each region, taking into account the problems and proposals of the governors, added the President of the Federation Council. Kudrin also disagrees with the finance minister, stressing that the issues need more financial space. “We see this both in the reduction of the investment component and in the very tense practice of enforcing wage decrees, co-financing national projects,” he explained.

The budget is always such a political commitment that there may be a debate on the part of different participants, which may seem unbalanced, but in general the critical situation of individual industries has not yet been seen, says director Vladimir Klimanov. RANEPA Regional Policy Center. According to him, the current dilemma in public administration is the concept of Run-Change-Disrupt (it offers three approaches: a systemic approach, a timely response to emerging tasks and the introduction of new and advanced ideas. – Vedomosti). .

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